Since it should not be necessary to rely on a nutrition professional to be assured of healthy eating and maintaining nutritional balance, the research bodies have translated nutritional needs into dietary advice. The most widespread system is certainly that of the food pyramid, continuously revised and updated on the basis of the latest news.
To eat healthy it is therefore essential to choose how much and when to eat various foods.
Foods of animal origin are those that provide high biological value proteins, some mineral salts (especially iron and calcium) and vitamins (practically all, especially those of group B, D and A); on the other hand, the excess of these foods can cause a surplus of: cholesterol, saturated fatty acids and proteins.
Among these, meat and offal should be eaten at least in 2 portions per week (150-250g), fishery products at least another 2 (200-300g), cheeses / ricotta at least one (80-150g) and eggs no more than 3 per week.
Then, as regards milk and yogurt, even more than one daily portion is allowed, although it is good to keep in mind that this depends on the portion, the composition of the diet and the level of milk skimming; 150-300ml of semi-skimmed milk and 1 or 2 pots of natural yogurt of 120g per day are normal. NB.
Preserved foods, such as cured meats, canned tuna, etc. they should be a marginal alternative.
Taking into consideration foods of plant origin, these must be consumed on a daily basis. The group of cereals and potatoes, together with that of legumes, above all guarantees the supply of the necessary complex carbohydrates.
- They can easily be included in all meals, but it is essential that they always fall within the useful portions.
- Pasta, rice and other derivatives should respect quantities of no more than 90g; the bread should fill the remaining need or replace the first course and usually range between 20-30g and 100-120g.
Legumes can be used like cereals
Sweet vegetables and fruits help increase satiety, provide water, potassium, some vitamins (especially A, C, E and K) and non-vitamin or saline antioxidants. They contain simple carbohydrates and sometimes affect the energy balance to such an extent as to create an excess decompensation.
NB. Some tropical fruits contain a lot of fat, such as avocado and coconut. On average, between cooked and raw, vegetables should appear at least 2-3 times in the daily diet and in portions of 50-200g; the fruits about 2 times for 200g (variable according to the fruit).
- NB. Jams, marmalades, dehydrated fruit, canned fruit and candied fruit do not belong to this category, but to that of sweet foods.
- Seasoning fats and oil seeds are necessary to compensate for the demand for related fatty acids and vitamins (especially E and A).
Carefully chosen, they help to satisfy the need for essential fatty acids and generally those beneficial to the body.
In addition, they provide many non-vitamin or saline antioxidants. As for the oil, about 2-4 tablespoons a day are sufficient (based on the fatness of the other foods); with regard to oil seeds, it is possible to use them in quantities of a few grams and only once a day.