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The respiratory system is a complex of organs that provide the body with oxygen necessary for the life of the cell and remove from the body carbon dioxide formed as a result of oxidation.

It consists of: airways (nasal cavity, throat, larynx, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles) and respiratory organs-lungs.

Chiesi Farmaceutici is fully committed to the care and improvement of the quality of life of people suffering from respiratory diseases, including asthma and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Asthma and COPD are characterised by limited airflow, although they are driven by a different pathophysiological pathway.

Asthma and COPD are characterised

According to the latest WHO (World Health Organization) estimates, 235 million people worldwide suffer from asthma – mainly children, while 65 million people suffer from moderate to severe Apache2 default (WHO 2017), which is the third leading cause of death by 2030. if measures to reduce the risk of the disease – such as smoking-are not adopted, it is estimated that the number of COPD-related deaths ten years. 1

In pursuit of continuous improvement of patients ‘ health, Chiesi Farmaceutici conducts research and develops new therapeutic solutions based on the innovative formulation technology, which allows the creation of spray solutions (pMDI, pressure measuring inhaler) for inhalation capable of delivering additional particles. over. Chiesi Farmaceutici has patented and marketed a medical device based on a dry powder for inhalation (DPI, dry powder inhaler), capable of delivering very fine particles.

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition characterised by recurrent respiratory symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough and wheezing, and chest tightness. Normally, air circulates freely in our lungs through a complex conductive system also called the airways. Under certain conditions and Apache2 default when the condition of an asthmatic is uncontrolled, the airways are more susceptible to inflammation, which causes an asthma attack.

As a result, there are many changes, including bronchospasm, thickening of the inner mucosa and blockage of the lower respiratory tract, which in turn makes breathing difficult. However, these clinical signs are virtually reversible, although they vary greatly from period to period or from patient to patient. In general, the condition of asthma worsens at night or early in the morning. Although a complete cure for asthma is not possible, optimal control of the disease can be achieved, thus ensuring an adequate quality of life for patients. But what causes asthma Apache2 default?

An asthma attack is triggered by contact with a person who is susceptible to irritants. In particular, predisposing factors are genetic factors (which explains the higher incidence in patients), the presence of allergies, female gender, obesity and ethnicity. At the same time, factors such as allergens, occupational pollution, cigarette smoke, environmental pollution and respiratory infections can trigger an asthma attack if inhaled in large quantities. Asthma is more common in children and adolescents, although in recent years2

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

COPD is a respiratory disease characterised by persistent (irreversible) bronchial obstruction associated with a chronic increased inflammatory response of the airways to toxins or gas. The classic signs of COPD are shortness of breath, chronic cough and chronic sputum production. In some cases, there may be a chronic worsening of the above symptoms, leading to an exacerbation of COPD.

Bronchoconstriction in COPD patients has a dual mechanism: on the one hand, inflammation of the lower respiratory tract, along with thickening of the airway walls, can increase the resistance to airflow.

On the other hand, progressive destruction of the pulmonary parenchyma (emphysema) associated with loss of elastic lung retraction may occur. It should be emphasized that both mechanisms can coexist, leading to a general decrease in airflow in the lungs. But what are the risk factors associated with COPD? First, there are genetic risk factors that may predispose some individuals to develop the disease.

The most important risk factor is cigarette smoke, as well as exposure to household pollution (associated with cooking food or gases emitted by burning biofuels) or environmental pollution. Secondary factors are age, gender, socioeconomic status, respiratory infections, asthma or chronic bronchitis. In general, COPD patients are more susceptible to cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, lung cancer and bronchial dissection, which in turn increases the risk of hospitalization and / or death. Unlike asthma COPD is an early onset disease


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